Fire fighting water pump is a fire protection equipment to increase the hydraulic pressure needed by sprinklers, standpipes or foam systems. The fire pump is connected to a public underground water supply piping or to a static water source (e.g., tank, reservoir or lake) and is powered by electric or diesel. A fire pump provides increased water flow at higher pressure to the sprinkler system risers and hose standpipes to overcome the hydraulic design demands of the building and ensure the sprinkler spray patterns develop correctly and the hose valves can open.
The fire pumps are housed in a specialized fire pump room next to the building’s fire storage tanks and a large network of pipes that end at either hydrants or sprinklers (nearly all buildings require both). In the event the building is in danger of burning, the water supply sensors in the fire pump room will detect a drop in pressure and the fire water pumps will start to push water through the system to reach hydrants or the sprinklers.
The pump’s performance can be characterized by two important measurements: PSI and GPM. PSI is the pressure of the water, and GPM measures the amount of water that the pump can deliver in a minute. Both factors are very important when choosing a fire fighting water pump and must be taken into account when designing the fire sprinkler system, including its sizing. The simplest way to understand the impact of each factor is to compare their sizing rules: the 1% rule for finding the flow rate and adding 10 pounds per square inch for sizing the pressure.